GRATIAN° (Franciscus Gratianus; d. before 1179), monk of Bologna. He is known for his canonical compilation Decretum Gratiani, assembled about 1140. The other title of the compilation, Concordantia discordantium canonum, clearly indicates its purpose, to bring together a large number of patristic texts and decrees of Church councils and popes, arranged in order of content. Though never officially adopted by papal authority, it was used in schools and synods, and from around 1159 was the manual of the Roman Curia. Among the thousands of texts assembled in the compilation only a few isolated ones concern the Jews. They include canon 61 of the Fourth Council of Toledo held in 633 (see church councils ), securing for children who are true Christians the belongings of their parents who have returned to Judaism (E. Friedberg (ed.) Corpus Juris Canonici, 1 (1871), 419: c. 7, C. 1, qu. 4). Others are canon 34 of the Council of Agde held in 506, imposing an eight-month instruction period for Jewish candidates for baptism, and canon 56 of the Fourth Council of Toledo, compelling Jews converted by force to remain Christians (ibid., 1392: c. 93–94, D. 4, De cons.). One small group of texts concerns mixed marriages, which must be dissolved and the children brought up by the Christian party; the converted Jews (of Spain) who have readopted Judaism, whose children must be given into the care of monasteries; converted Jews, who must avoid all contacts with their former coreligionists; and the prohibition on Christians eating the unleavened bread of Jews, living among them, consulting their physicians, bathing with them, or finally, sharing meals with them (various councils; ibid., 1087: c. 10–14, C. 28, qu. 1). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Villien and J. de Ghellinck, in: Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, 6 (1920), 1727–51; J. Forchielli and A.M. Stickler (eds.), Studia Gratiana, 1 (1953– ); New Catholic Encyclopedia, 6 (1966), S.V. (Bernhard Blumenkranz)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Gratian — (* 359 in Sirmium; † 25. August 383 in Lugdunum), mit vollständigem Namen Flavius Gratianus, war von 375 bis 383 Kaiser im Westen des Römischen Reiches, wurde aber bereits 367 von seinem Vater Valentinian I. zum Mitkaiser ernannt. Zusammen mit… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Gratian — • Details on this Roman Emperor who was the son of Valentinian I. He was born at Sirmium, 359 and died at Lyons, 383 Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Gratian     Gratian      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Gratian — Gratian, Grazian lateinischer Ursprung, Bedeutung: der Anmutige. Namensträger: Gratian, römischer Kaiser …   Deutsch namen

  • Gratian — [grā′shən] (L. name Flavius Gratianus) A.D. 359 383; Rom. emperor (375 383) …   English World dictionary

  • Gratian — Infobox Roman emperor name =Gratian full name=Flavius Gratianus (from birth to accession); Flavius Gratianus Augustus (as emperor) title=Emperor of the Roman Empire caption =A coin of Gratian. The legend shows Gratian s titles, D N GRATIANVS P F… …   Wikipedia

  • Gratian — /gray shee euhn, sheuhn/, n. (Flavius Gratianus) A.D. 359 383, Roman emperor 375 383. * * * Latin in full Flavius Gratianus Augustus born 359, Sirmium, Pannonia died Aug. 25, 383, Lugdunum, Lugdunensis Roman emperor (r. 367–83). He originally… …   Universalium

  • Gratian — I Gratian,   eigentlich Flavius Gratianus, römischer Kaiser (367 383), * Sirmium (heute Sremska Mitrovica) 18. 4. 359, ✝ Lugdunum (heute Lyon) 25. 8. 383. Mit acht Jahren zum Augustus ausgerufen, übernahm er nach dem Tod seines Vaters …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Gratian — (twelfth century)    Historian and Legalist.    Little is known of the life of Gratian. He was probably born in Chiusi, Italy, and was a professed Camaldolese monk. He is remembered for his Concordantia Discordantium Canonum, generally known as… …   Who’s Who in Christianity

  • Gratian — Latin Flavius Gratianus biographical name 359 383 Roman emperor (367 383) …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • GRATIAN —    a celebrated canonist of the 12th century, born at Chiusi, Tuscany; was a Benedictine monk at Bologna, and compiled the Decretum Gratiani between 1139 and 1142 …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

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